Middlemarch, de George Eliot

Pois após este evento, acabei relendo Middlemarch em casa. Digo em casa porque normalmente leio na rua, no transporte coletivo ou quando pego uma fila qualquer. Descobri um erro naquilo que disse no StudioClio. Houve três encontros entre Dorothea Casaubon e Rosamond Lydgate, mas apenas em um há um diálogo mais longo, razão de meu erro. Confesso que fiquei muito triste quando descobri a coisa. Não vou lá corrigir; afinal, isto é um blog, não é formado por teses acadêmicas.

O que me levou a reler as 877 páginas do livro foi sua tremenda qualidade. Na verdade, recomecei muito lentamente, lendo um capítulo a cada dois ou três dias. Depois, o livro voltou a me envolver de tal forma que queria não saber o que já sabia, mas relembrar de cada detalhe. Valeu absurdamente a pena, pois Eliot tem muito a nos ensinar. Apertada e já desconfortável dentro da estrutura clássica do romance do século XIX, a autora expande os limites da forma até onde pode através de análises psicológicas e sociológicas que apontam para um outro gênero mais livre de romance. Eu também tinha esquecido do Epílogo, aqui chamado um tanto ironicamente de Finale. Em vez de deixar os personagens casadinhos e felizes para sempre, Eliot dá-lhes outras histórias, inclusive referindo à morte prematura de Mr. Lydgate e dando um novo casamento à viúva Rosamond. Quem é este novo marido? Também fica uma enorme interrogação a respeito da história do outro casal protagonista. A vida de Dorothea com Will Ladislaw é descrita no Finale com tão poucos detalhes que o livro deve ter irritado ao leitor vitoriano, acostumado a ver tudo abotoadinho ao término da narrativa.

Pois Eliot ameaça aquele leitor não apenas com personagens contraditórios e cheios de tortuosidades como com outras camadas de ficção e experiência. Este romance é, sim, um portento e meus sete leitores deveriam lê-lo…


Fui procurar o sobrenome original de Dorothea (Brooke) e vejam o que encontrei:

Lista de personagens (em inglês):

Mr. Bambridge – Bambridge is a Middlemarch horse dealer. Fred Vincy sinks into his debt; Raffles meets him at a horse-fair and tells him everything about Bulstrode’s past.

Dorothea Brooke – Dorothea is a kind-hearted and honest woman. She longs to find some way to improve the world. She thinks Casaubon is a great intellectual, but after she marries him, she quickly discovers that he is not passionate enough to make her happy. She also learns that she is not as submissive and sacrificing as she had previously thought. She draws plans for comfortable cottages to replace the ramshackle buildings on large estates. She helps Lydgate when he suffers for his connections with Bulstrode. She falls in love with Casaubon’s young cousin, Will Ladislaw. She defies Casaubon’s machinations and marries Will even though it means losing her inheritance as Casaubon’s widow.

Read an in-depth analysis of Dorothea Brooke.

Arthur Brooke – Brooke is Dorothea and Celia’s bachelor uncle. He is a bumbling man who can never stick to an opinion, always wanting to please everyone. He hires Will Ladislaw to write for his paper, the Pioneer. He runs for a seat in Parliament on the Reform platform, but he lets his own tenants live in poverty and squalor. The scandal resulting from his hypocrisy prompts him to improve conditions on his own estate, Tipton Grange.

Celia Brooke – Celia is Dorothea’s sister. She marries Sir James Chettam.

Nicholas Bulstrode – Nicholas Bulstrode is a wealthy Middlemarch banker. He is married to Walter Vincy’s sister. Bulstrode professes to be a deeply religious Evangelical Protestant, but he has a dark past: he made his fortune as a pawnbroker selling stolen goods. He married Will Ladislaw’s grandmother after her first husband died. Her daughter had run away years before, and she insisted that Bulstrode find her daughter before she re-married, because she wanted to leave her wealth to her only surviving child. Bulstrode located the daughter and her child, Will Ladislaw, but he kept her existence a secret. He bribed the man he hired to find her, John Raffles, to keep quiet. John Raffles blackmails him with this information. When Raffles becomes ill, Bulstrode cares for him. However, he disobeys Lydgate’s medical advice, and Raffles dies as a result. When the scandal about his past and the circumstances of Raffles’s death become known, Bulstrode leaves Middlemarch in shame. He purchases Stone Court from Joshua Rigg Featherstone.

Harriet Bulstrode – Harriet Bulstrode is Walter Vincy’s sister. She is a kind, honest, religious woman. No one in Middlemarch blames her for her husband’s misdeeds. She resolves to stay with her husband even after she learns of his wrongdoing.

Elinor Cadwallader – Elinor Cadwallader is the wife of the Rector at Tipton Grange, Brooke’s estate. She was born to a good family, but she married down and angered her friends and families. She is a practical woman who is forever trying to play matchmaker to unmarried young people, including Dorothea, Celia, and Sir James.

Humphrey Cadwallader – Humphrey Cadwallader is the Rector at Tipton Grange, Brooke’s estate. Unlike his wife, he doesn’t believe in meddling in other people’s affairs.

Edward Casaubon – Edward Casaubon owns a large estate called Lowick. He is a scholarly clergyman. His lifelong ambition is to write the Key to all Mythologies, but he is insecure and uncertain about his own abilities. He marries Dorothea because he thinks she is completely submissive and worshipful. Her stubborn independence frustrates him, and he mistakenly believes that she is constantly criticizing him. Casaubon is Will Ladislaw’s cousin. His mother’s sister was disowned by her family for running away to marry a man they didn’t like. Her own daughter, Will’s mother, also ran away to marry. Casaubon offers financial support to Will because he feels obligated to make amends for his aunt’s disinheritance. He becomes jealous of Will’s relationship with Dorothea. He includes an addendum in his will stating that Dorothea will lose his wealth and property if she ever marries Will Ladislaw. He dies before finishing his Key.

Sir James Chettam – Sir James Chettam is a baronet. He owns a large estate called Freshitt. He courts Dorothea, but she chooses to marry Casaubon. He later marries her sister. He enacts Dorothea’s cottage plans on his own estate.

Mr. Dagley – Dagley is one of Brooke’s impoverished tenants. His son is caught poaching on Brooke’s lands. He refuses Brooke’s request that he chastise his son.

Camden Farebrother – Camden Farebrother is a Vicar, but he doesn’t consider himself to be a very good clergyman, though many people like his sensible sermons. He becomes fast friends with Lydgate and supports his mother, sister, and aunt on his small income. He must gamble to make ends meet and to pursue his scientific hobbies. He loses in the election for the chaplaincy at the New Hospital. He receives the Lowick parish after Casaubon’s death. Fred Vincy enlists his help in courting Mary Garth. He himself loves Mary, but he does his duty.

Mrs. Farebrother – Mrs. Farebrother is Camden Farebrother’s widowed mother.

Winifred Farebrother – Winifred Farebrother is Camden Farebrother’s unmarried sister.

Peter Featherstone – Peter Featherstone is a wealthy, manipulative old widower. He owns Stone Court. He married twice, but had no legitimate children. His first wife was Caleb Garth’s sister. His second wife was Lucy Vincy’s sister. He hints for years that he plans to leave his entire estate to Fred Vincy, his nephew by marriage. He even writes two separate wills. Mary Garth refuses to burn one of them. He leaves his property to his illegitimate son, Joshua Rigg.

Caleb Garth – Caleb Garth is a poor businessman. He earns his living managing large estates. He co-signs a debt for Fred Vincy. When Fred is unable to pay, Garth’s family suffers. He receives new business, overcomes the loss, and hires Fred Vincy to work for him. He declines to manage Stone Court for Bulstrode after Raffles reveals Bulstrode’s dark past.

Susan Garth – Susan Garth is Caleb Garth’s wife. She is a former schoolteacher.

Mary Garth – Mary Garth is the daughter of Caleb and Susan Garth. She loves Fred, but she refuses to marry him if he becomes a clergyman and fails to find a steady occupation.

Will Ladislaw – Will Ladislaw is the grandson of Casaubon’s disinherited aunt. Bulstrode tries to give him money to atone for hiding his existence from his grandmother. He refuses the money because he knows it came through thievery. He worships Dorothea. He doesn’t care for money and loves everything that is beautiful.

Tertius Lydgate – Tertius Lydgate is the orphan son of a military man. He chose the medical profession at a young age, much to the chagrin of his wealthy, titled relatives. He comes to Middlemarch hoping to test new methods of treatment. He marries Rosamond Vincy, whose expensive habits get him into debt. He takes a loan from Bulstrode and becomes embroiled in Bulstrode’s scandal. Dorothea aids him in his darkest hour. He hopes to find the tissue that is the most basic building block of life.

Read an in-depth analysis of Tertius Lydgate.

Sir Godwin Lydgate – Sir Godwin Lydgate is Tertius Lydgate’s uncle.

Captain Lydgate – Captain Lydgate is Tertius Lydgate’s foppish cousin. He takes Rosamond out riding. She suffers a miscarriage as a result of an accident on horseback.

Naumann – Naumann is Ladislaw’s painter friend in Rome. He uses Casaubon as a model for Thomas Aquinas as a ruse to draw a sketch of Dorothea.

Miss Noble – Miss Noble is Mrs. Farebrother’s sister. She steals small items of food to give to the poor. She becomes fond of Will Ladislaw.

Selina Plymdale – Selina Plymdale is a good friend of Harriet Bulstrode. Her son courts Rosamond Vincy, but he is rejected.

Ned Plymdale – Ned Plymdale courts Rosamond, but she refuses him.

John Raffles – John Raffles is an old business partner of Bulstrode. Bulstrode bribed him to keep the existence of the daughter and grandchild of his first wife secret. He comes back to blackmail Bulstrode. He is Joshua Rigg Featherstone’s stepfather. He dies at Stone Court because Bulstrode interferes with Lydgate’s medical treatment.

Joshua Rigg Featherstone – Joshua Rigg Featherstone is Peter Featherstone’s illegitimate son. John Raffles is his stepfather. He inherits Stone Court. He sells it to Bulstrode because he wants to become a moneychanger.

Borthrop Trumbell – Borthrop Trumbell is an auctioneer in Middlemarch.

Walter Tyke – Walter Tyke is an Evangelical Protestant minister. Bulstrode is a supporter of his. He wins the election for the chaplaincy at the New Hospital, beating out Farebrother.

Rosamond Vincy – Rosamond Vincy is the daughter of Walter and Lucy Vincy. She grows up accustomed to an expensive lifestyle. She marries Lydgate because she thinks he is rich and because he has titled relatives. She dreams of leaving Middlemarch and living an exciting, aristocratic lifestyle, but her expensive tastes get Lydgate deeply into debt.

Read an in-depth analysis of Rosamond Vincy.

Fred Vincy – Fred Vincy is the oldest son of Walter and Lucy Vincy. His father sends him to college because he wants Fred to become a clergyman, but Fred doesn’t want to work in the Church. He gets himself into debt by gambling. He is accustomed to a lavish lifestyle. He causes financial difficulty for the Garths because he cannot pay the debt on which Caleb Garth co-signed his name. He wants to marry Mary Garth, but she won’t have him unless he finds a steady occupation other than the Church. He hopes to inherit Stone Court from his uncle, Peter Featherstone. These hopes are disappointed, so he works for Caleb Garth.

Walter Vincy – Walter Vincy is a modestly well-off businessman in manufacturing. He is also mayor of Middlemarch. Fred and Rosamond’s expensive tastes infuriate him. He refuses to lend Rosamond and Lydgate money to pay Lydgate’s debt. He is Harriet Bulstrode’s brother.

Lucy Vincy – Lucy Vincy is Walter Vincy’s wife. She is the daughter of an innkeeper, much to Rosamond’s chagrin. She dotes on her son and doesn’t want him to marry Mary Garth. She is the sister of Featherstone’s second wife.

Mr. Wrench – Mr. Wrench is a Middlemarch doctor. He misdiagnoses Fred when Fred catches typhoid fever. Lydgate treats Fred’s illness, and the Vincys fire Mr. Wrench. Mr. Wrench becomes Lydgate’s enemy as a result.

6 comments / Add your comment below

  1. Como você deve saber ando às voltas com a escrita de um romance, que pode ser lido em http://harumoresdevidaemmarte.blogspot.com/.

    Resisti, mas não pude ir até o fim, porque se trata de Middlemarch.

    Só depois de ler este livro de George Eliot me apaixonei por Virginia Woolf. Em Middlemarch nós temos uma abordagem diferente dos infindáveis “tempos e transição”, que são para sempre. O mundo está sempre em transformação e aqueles que nele vivem passam por ansiedades, medos, nostalgias, desejos e tudo mais quanto pode sentir um ser humano, pois, afinal, trata-se da vida e, por mais que tenhamos a ideia estúpida de que a história terminou e o capitalismo financeiro será o Reich de Mil Anos, até mesmo ele terá a batalha final com sua Nêmesis (que hoje cerca com a tática guerrilheira), todos os tempos são transição, e a literatura nos permite contemplar mais detidamente determinada transição, e se o faz bem temos um romance como o de Eliot.

    Para os românticos de última hora, a união de Dorothea e Lydgate estava escrito nas estrelas. Mas, para o bem da verossimilhança, seus caminhos, tão obviamente dispostos para uma união, depois de configurados todos seus cruzamentos progressistas, tomam direções que seguem em paralelo durante algum tempo, até que se distanciam inapelavelmente, indo Dorothea para a superação de um equívoco pela mã escolha de um homem e Lydgate para o mergulho nele, pela má escolha de uma mulher (há uma imagem que ele usa para descrever seu casamento a partir do nome de uma flor que, segundo ele, se não me falhe a memória, refulgiria quando plantada em um crânio humano, ou algo assim).

    Middlemarch trata das marchas e contramarchas do que seria a evolução humana, ou sua ilusão de progresso, e ainda sua necessidade, sua iminência diante de demandas sociais justas, personificadas pelo frustrado desejo de Lydgate, realizado por Dorothea em sua segunda união. Eu o vejo, entre outras coisas, como um romance sobre os efeitos das transformações históricas nos sujeitos que vivem na periferia dessas transformações tentando mergulhar no centro delas.

    É curioso como Virginia ainda trata dessas transições, mas sob prismas muito mais melancólicos e desesperançados. Talvez Eliot tenha vivido em tempos mais excitantes e entre homens melhores, e Virginia não tenha podido corresponder á excitação de seus tempos também interessantes, talvez por não se encontrar na companhia de homens melhores. Mas veja Noite e Dia, por exemplo, com as hesitações de sua heroína entre dois homens, um ainda aludindo ao seu presente de chás e leituras do poeta da família, e outro como confuso representante da mobilidade social em um meio social que conta, entre os pontos de interesse do próprio romance, o movimento sufragista.

    Triste como, depois de romancistas tão formidáveis, a diluição da literatura nos veja hoje conformados a nomes que não possuem mais que um tímido brilhareco diante delas, por mais que alguns possam amar figurinhas como V. S. Naipaul e Martin Amis et caterva.

    Mas é interessante saber que, em suas próprias épocas, tanto Virginia quanto Eliot deviam se sentir como nos sentimos hoje, em meio a um mundo repleto de esperanças mas, como disse Kafka, não para nós. Penso que supervalorizamos nossos sofrimentos e o sempre maldito estado em que estamos, e exigimos, com maior, menor ou até nenhum vigor, transformações que satisfaçam demandas tanto íntimas como globais.

    Sim, isso não é tudo e nem mesmo o bastante que podemos inferir sobre Middlemarch, Eliot ou Virginia. Mas é apenas um comentário em um blog, não uma tese acadêmica. Deus (que não existe, é claro) me livre disso!

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